Glossary of terms


                      A

                      A/P

                      Anterior/Posterior (anatomic terms)

                      AAOS

                      American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons

                      Abdomen

                      A portion of the body between the thorax and pelvis

                      Abduct

                      To draw away from the midline

                      Abduction

                      The act of drawing away from the midline; opposite of adduction

                      Abductor

                      A muscle performing the function of abduction

                      Abscess

                      Localized collection of pus

                      Acetabulum

                      The cavity in the os coxae (hip) into which the head of the femur fits

                      Acromion

                      Bony process of the scapula which forms the point of the shoulder

                      Acute

                      Severe and/or short duration; used in speaking of duration and severity of disease

                      Adamant

                      Extremely hard, as enamel of tooth

                      Adduct

                      To draw toward the midline

                      Adduction

                      The act of drawing toward the midline; opposite abduction

                      Allograft

                      A tissue transplanted to a different individual of the same species

                      Alloy

                      A mix of metals designed to improve implant material properties for specific purposes

                      All-poly

                      A component composed entirely of polyethylene, with no metal parts

                      Amphiarthrosis

                      A joint with little movement and no joint cavity

                      Anconeus

                      Pertaining to the elbow

                      Ankylosis

                      The fusion of a joint

                      Anteflexion

                      A forward curvature; a condition in which the upper part of an organ is bent forward; opposite of retroflexion

                      Anterior

                      Placed in the front or forward part; opposite of posterior

                      Anteversion

                      A forward turning; a condition in which an entire organ is abnormally tipped forward

                      Apex

                      Top or summit

                      Aponeurosis

                      A flat sheet of white fibrous tissue, usually serving as an attachment for a muscle; plural aponeuroses; aponeurotica, Latin adjective

                      Appliance

                      Device used in support or fracture fixation external or internal

                      Apposition

                      The state of being fitted together, being in contact at the ends (see also mineral apposition)

                      Aqueous

                      Watery

                      Arthritis

                      Inflammation of a joint

                      Arthrodesis

                      Fusion of a joint, eliminating all motion

                      Arthroplasty

                      The surgical reconstruction of a joint

                      Arthrosis

                      A joint: from the Greek

                      Arthrotomy

                      Cutting into a joint

                      Articular

                      Pertaining to a joint; surfaces that "fit together"

                      Articulation

                      Movement of a joint; from the Latin

                      Asepsis

                      A condition free from germs; free from infection

                      Aspect

                      Position, surface, or face

                      Aspirate

                      To remove by suction

                      Asymmetric design

                      A design which mirrors the natural, anatomic contours of a joint, a design which comes in right and left configurations

                      Atrophy

                      A wasting away of tissue usually through disuse

                      Autograft

                      A tissue transplanted from one part to another part of the same body

                      Autonomic

                      ?Being self-controlled; independent

                      Axial

                      ?Pertaining to the axis or line about which a body turns, therefore pertaining to the trunk; opposite of appendicular

                      B

                      Beads, beaded

                      Term used to describe implant coatings made of tiny spheres (beading)

                      Biaxial

                      Turning about two axes (having two axes)

                      Biconcave

                      Having two concave surfaces

                      Bilateral

                      Occurring on both sides of a midline point or pertaining to both sides of the body (ex. bilateral knee replacement means having both knees replaced)

                      Biocompatibility

                      Materials that can coexist with living tissue without being harmful or toxic or being rejected by the host. The most common materials for joint replacement are polyethylenes, metals and ceramics, each has specific biocompatible characteristics

                      Biomechanics

                      The study of the relationship between forces and motion in biologic systems like the human body

                      Bipolar

                      Having two poles or processes

                      Blood

                      A fluid tissue circulating through heart, arteries, veins, and capillaries

                      Bone cement

                      Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone (see also cement)

                      Brachial

                      Pertaining to the arm

                      Broach

                      A tool or instrument used to enlarge the interior canal of bones to allow for insertion of implants, broaching is the process of enlarging the canal

                      C

                      Cage

                      A type of spinal implant

                      Calcaneus

                      The heel bone; also termed calcaneum

                      Calcar

                      A thickened plate of bone near the head of the femur

                      Cancellous

                      Lattice-like bone structure; softer bone

                      Cancellous bone

                      A type of bone characterized by a spongy or lattice-like structure. Also known as Trabecular Bone.

                      Cancellous-structured titanium

                      A specially-manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits bone ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also CSTi)

                      Capitate

                      Bone of the wrist having head-shaped process.

                      Capitulum

                      Little head.

                      Capsular

                      A ligament which surrounds a movable joint.

                      Caput

                      Head; capitis, "of the head."

                      Carpal

                      Pertaining to the wrist.

                      Carpus

                      The wrist; carpi, "of the wrist."

                      Caudal

                      Pertaining to any tail-like structure; inferior in position.

                      Cement

                      Material usually made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) which acts like a grout between an implant and the patient’s bone. (Bone cement)

                      Cemented

                      An implant which is secured in a patient’s body with the aid of bone cement or the process of using cement to help fix an implant.

                      Central

                      Situated in the midportion as opposed to peripheral.

                      Chronic

                      Of long duration; opposite of acute.

                      Circumduct

                      To rotate in a cone shape around a single point, as in the shoulder joint.

                      Circumflex

                      Bent or turned about.

                      Clavicle

                      The collar bone

                      Clinical pathway

                      Established methodologies and decision trees for use by health professionals and patients in planning and preparing for medical intervention.

                      Coatings

                      Any number of different materials applied to the surface of an implant or prosthesis to aid in fixation; porous coatings generally permit ingrowth into the implant. (see also porous, beads)

                      Cobalt-chrome

                      A metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants. (also see CoCr)

                      Coccyx

                      Last, lowest portion of vertebral column (tailbone).

                      CoCr

                      Cobalt Chrome Alloy, a metal alloy with excellent resistance to fatigue, cracking and stress, widely-used in orthopedic implants.

                      Collar, collared

                      The top edge of a hip stem implant which rests on the top edges of the bone in which it was implanted.

                      Component

                      A part of an implant system, for example the patellar component is that piece that either replaces or enhances the original patella (knee cap).

                      Concave

                      Having a depressed surface; center is at a lower level than edge; opposite of convex.

                      Condyle

                      A rounded knob on the end of a hone; a knuckle.

                      Condyloid

                      Resembling a knuckle.

                      Congenital

                      Present at birth, as in CDH, congenital dislocated hip.

                      Congruent

                      The degree of constraint of two articular implants. (congruence)

                      Convex

                      Having a rounded elevated surface; opposite of concave.

                      Coracoid

                      Like a crow's beak; variant of coronoid.

                      Costal

                      Pertaining to a rib or ribs.

                      Coxa

                      The hip; coxae, "of the hip."

                      Cranial

                      Pertaining to the cranium.

                      Cranium

                      The skull or brain pan.

                      Cruciate

                      Shaped like a cross.

                      Cruciate ligament

                      Any paired set of ligaments that cross over each other in an "X" formation, usually used to refer to the posterior cruciate ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee, which help stabilize the forward and backward motion of the knee.

                      Cruciate-retaining

                      A knee system design that allows the surgeon to keep the patient’s cruciate ligament.

                      Cruciate-sacrificing

                      A knee system in which the design of the implant must serve to stabilize the forward and back motion of the knee components because of an excised or deficient patient’s ligament. (see also PS)

                      CSTi

                      A specially manufactured, patented type of titanium coating that permits ingrowth because of its lattice-like surface texture. (see also Cancellous-structured titanium)

                      Cubital

                      Pertaining to the tile space in front of the elbow joint.

                      Custom

                      An implant manufactured to the demands of a surgeon based on the specific needs of one patient

                      Cyclic fatigue

                      A biomechanical measure of stress placed on a material, measured in "cycles" of regular motion (as in joint motion - rotation, bending, etc.)

                      D

                      Deltoid

                      Triangular; resembling the Greek letter, delta.

                      Design rationale

                      The justification for an implant design based on extensive research into materials, clinical data, function, style, anatomical constraints, etc.

                      Diagnosis

                      Recognition of disease from symptoms.

                      Diathrosis

                      A freely moveable joint; plural diarthroses.

                      Digiti

                      Of a digit.

                      Digitorum

                      Of the digits.

                      Dislocation

                      The displacement of any part, especially the removal temporarily of a bone from its normal position in a joint

                      Distal

                      Remote; opposite of proximal.

                      Dorsiflex

                      To turn toward the back; opposite of palmar flex.

                      E

                      Endosteum

                      Tissue surrounding the medullary cavity of bone.

                      Epi

                      A prefix meaning "on" or "above", opposite of hypo.

                      Epicondyle

                      A prominence or a bone on or upon a condyle.

                      Epiphysis

                      A part of process of a bone which ossifles separately before making osseous union with the main portion of the bone; the "growth plate" of bones

                      Etiology

                      The study of the causes of disease

                      Eversion

                      The act of turning outward; opposite of inversion.

                      Evert

                      To turn out; to turn tile sole of the foot outward opposite of invert.

                      Extension

                      A movement at a joint bringing the two parts into or toward a straight line from a flexed position; opposite of flexion

                      External

                      On the surface or outer side; opposite of internal. Latin adjective, externus or externa

                      Extra

                      Prefix meaning "outside of," opposite of intra

                      F

                      FDA

                      Food and Drug Administration

                      Femur

                      Thigh; bone of the thigh; femoral is the adjective; femoris, "of the thigh." Smaller bone of lower leg; tile splint bone

                      Fixation

                      The act, process or operation of holding, suturing or fastening something into a fixed position. In orthopedics, often refers to the stability and immobilization of an implant into the patient’s body

                      Flexion

                      Sagittal plane movement in which the anterior surfaces of two segments are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension; bending of a joint

                      Flexure

                      The curved or bent part of a structure

                      Foramen

                      A hole; plural, foramina, or foramens

                      Fossa

                      A pit or hollow; plural, fossae

                      Fracture

                      A break in the continuity of bone

                      G

                      Glenoid

                      Resembling a pit or pocket. The glenoid fossa of the scapula is very shallow. Analogous to the acetabulum of the hip

                      GMP

                      Good Manufacturing Practices, part of total quality systems

                      H

                      Hallux

                      The great toe; hallucis "of the great toe"

                      Harris Hip Scores

                      A numerical rating scale used for evaluation of the hip. The Harris Hip Rating Scale evaluates pain, function, absence of deformity and range of motion. One hundred is the highest possible total.

                      HSS Knee Scores

                      Hospital for Special Surgery Knee Scores, a numerical scale for rating knees.

                      Humerus

                      The upper arm bone.

                      Hydroxyapatite (HA)

                      A bioactive calcium phosphate ceramic similar to normal bone, may be applied to implant surfaces.

                      Hyper

                      Prefix meaning above; opposite of hypo.

                      Hyperplasia

                      Increase in size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells.

                      Hypertrophy

                      Increase in the size of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the size of its constituent cells.

                      Hypo

                      A prefix meaning below or under; opposite or epi or hyper.

                      I

                      IDE

                      Investigational Device Exemption (studies of experimental products).

                      Ilium

                      The bone of the flank; adjective is iliac; ilio is the combining form.

                      Implant

                      A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body. (see also stem, prosthesis)

                      Index

                      Referring to the forefinger or "pointing" finger.

                      Inferior

                      Situated or placed below; opposite of superior; inferioris, a Latin form of the adjective.

                      Infra

                      A prefix meaning "beneath," opposite of supra.

                      Ingrowth

                      The process of living bone or tissue growing up to and into the surface of an implant, very important for stabilization and long-term life of the implant. (bone or bony ingrowth)

                      Instrument

                      A tool or implement used in surgery.

                      Inter

                      A prefix meaning "between".

                      Interbody fusion

                      A surgical technique for achieving bony fusion between invertebral bodies, term used to describe a specific back surgery technique.

                      Interface

                      Surface forming a common boundary between two bodies (used to describe the interaction of implant and living tissue).

                      Internal

                      Within or on the inside.

                      Intra

                      A prefix meaning "within".

                      Inversion

                      The act of tuning inward; opposite of eversion.

                      Invert

                      To turn in; to turn the sole of the foot inward; opposite of evert.

                      Involuntary

                      Performed against the will or consent.

                      Ischium

                      Bone of the hip; adjective is ischiatic, ischial, or sciatic.

                      ISO

                      International Standards Organization, a standards issuing body.

                      K

                      Knee Society Score

                      A numerical scale for evaluating knee function developed by the Knee Society.

                      Kyphosis

                      An abnormal condition (curvature) of the spine; hunch-backed.

                      L

                      Lateral

                      Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.

                      LD

                      Low-demand or low density

                      LDPE

                      Low Density Polyethylene

                      Ligament

                      Fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion.

                      Lordosis

                      Abnormal anterior convexity of the lumbar spine.

                      Lumen

                      Space within a tube or organ.

                      Lunate

                      A bone of the carpus shaped like a crescent moon.

                      Luxation

                      Dislocation of a joint.

                      M

                      M/L

                      Medial/Lateral (anatomic term)

                      Major

                      Larger, opposite of minor, majus is neuter adjective.

                      Malleolus

                      A little hammer (mallet); a hammer-shaped process; ankle bone. Plural, malleoli.

                      Mandible

                      Bone of lower jaw.

                      Marrow

                      Soft central part of a bone.

                      Maxilla

                      A jawbone; particularly the bone of the upper jaw.

                      Media

                      Middle

                      Medial

                      Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.

                      Median

                      Pertaining to the middle; that is, between two other structures.

                      Meniscectomy

                      Removal of the meniscus cartilage of the knee.

                      Meniscus

                      A "C" shaped cartilage in the knee which provides a stabilization system for the knee and a measure of shock absorption

                      Metacarpus

                      Beyond the instep; the five bones of the foot between the toes and tarsal bone

                      Metal-backed

                      Term used to describe implants that have a polyethylene liner set in a metal shell or on a metal base, the metal portion would rest in a prepared area in the bone and the polyethylene side would move against other metal components

                      Minor

                      Smaller, opposite of major.

                      Morphology

                      The study of the structure of organisms, used colloquially to refer to the structure of body parts

                      N

                      Navicular

                      Boat shaped; carpal bone at the base of the thumb. Also called the scaffoid

                      Necrosis

                      Death of areas of tissue or bone surrounded by healthy tissue.

                      Non-porous

                      An implant designed to be used with bone cement for stabilization; a surface that is not designed for nor coated with surfaces for ingrowth

                      O

                      O.R.I.F.

                      Open Reduction, Internal Fixation.

                      Oblique

                      Slanting; between horizontal and vertical direction..; Latin adjective, obliquus

                      Olecranon

                      From the Greek word for elbow. The prominence at the proximal end of the ulna

                      Opposition

                      The act of opposing one part to another.

                      Orbital

                      Pertaining to the orbit (eye).

                      Organ

                      A group of tissues having a special function.

                      Orthopedics

                      Branch of medical science that deals with treatment of disorders involving locomotor structures of the body, especially the skeleton, joints, muscle, fascia.

                      Orthopedist

                      A physician specializing in orthopedics.

                      Os

                      Bone; Os coxae - hip bone.

                      Osmosis

                      Passage of fluid across a membrane from a lesser to a more highly concentrated solution

                      Ossification

                      Formation of bone.

                      Osteophyte

                      An abnormal bony outgrowth

                      Osteoporosis

                      Increased porosity of bone.

                      Osteotomy

                      Cutting and repositioning bone to more functional position.

                      Outcome management

                      The process of collecting, tracking and interpreting outcomes data

                      Outcomes

                      The results of surgery in terms of patient satisfaction, reduction of pain, improved function, etc. Outcomes are tracked by hospitals and practices.

                      Oxygenless

                      A patented procedure used by Zimmer in the packaging of polyethylenes where oxygen is removed from the packaging. Lab testing has shown the process decreases the wear rates of PE (polyethylene).

                      P

                      Palmar

                      The palm of the hand.

                      Para

                      Prefix meaning "beside," "accessory to" or near.

                      Patella

                      The kneecap

                      Patient Satisfaction Surveys

                      Surveys which seek to measure patients’ satisfaction with their surgery, recovery, etc. These form part of the outcomes data that surgeons and hospitals track.

                      Pearls

                      Expert surgical techniques developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures. (see surgical pearls)

                      Pedal

                      Pertaining to the foot.

                      Pelvis

                      A basin or basin-like structure.

                      Peri

                      Prefix meaning "around."

                      Peripheral

                      Located on or near the surface of a part.

                      Pes

                      The foot; pedis, "of the foot."

                      Phalanges

                      Plural of phalanx, which refers to any bone of the finger or toe.

                      Plantar

                      Pertaining to the sole of the foot; plaritaris; Latin adjective plantae, "of the sole of the foot."

                      Plasma

                      Fluid portion of the blood.

                      Plasma spray

                      A coating for implants

                      Plastics

                      A common term that in orthopedic devices refers usually to polyethylene and more specifically to ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). (see also polyethylene, UHMWPE)

                      PMA

                      Pre-Market Approval (FDA approval after IDE study is complete).

                      PMMA

                      Poly methylmethacrylate (bone cement). (see also cement, bone cement)

                      Polyethylene

                      A type of plastic formed by the polymerization of ethylene. Different structural properties come from differences in molecular weight, branching, cross-linkage and crystallinity. The most common form used in orthopedic devices is ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE).

                      Pore

                      Small holes or spaces on the surface or interior of a material.

                      Porous

                      Characterized by pores and open spaces.

                      Porous-coated

                      The design feature of a type of implant where the metal has small surface openings into which bone or tissue is intended to grow for permanent stabilization.

                      Posterior

                      Situated behind or toward the back; opposite of anterior.

                      Press-fit

                      Describes the fit at the interface of an implant with the surrounding bone; the implant is implanted without cement and is tightly "pressed" or impacted into the patient’s bone. (see also uncemented)

                      Primary

                      Initial or first; in joint replacement, this term is used to indicate the first surgery to repair or replace a joint as opposed to a revision surgery which replaces or revises an implant.

                      Process

                      A slender projecting point; Latin, processus.

                      Prognosis

                      The likely outcome of an illness

                      Pronate

                      To turn palm downward (opposite: supinate).

                      Prone

                      Lying with face downward (opposite: supine).

                      Prosthesis

                      Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute. An artificial organ or part.

                      Protract

                      To extend forward or outward; opposite of retract.

                      Proximal

                      Nearest; opposite of distal.

                      PS

                      Posterior Stabilized; a posterior stabilized knee is a type of semiconstrained total knee system that compensates for a deficient or absent posterior cruciate ligament through its surface geometry (its design minimizes forward and backward movement of the knee and substitutes for the function of the ligament).

                      Pseudarthrosis

                      A false joint developing after a fracture that has not united.

                      Pseudo

                      A prefix signifying "false.

                      PT

                      Premier Total

                      Pubis

                      Pubic bone

                      R

                      Radiolucent

                      Allowing x-rays to pass through, radiolucent areas appear dark on x-rays.

                      Radius

                      A bone of the forearm.

                      Ream,reaming

                      A verb meaning to gouge out holes or enlarge holes already made, in orthopedic surgery, bones need to be reamed to allow for the implantation of a prosthesis.

                      Recurvatum

                      Hyperextension of the knee.

                      Reduction

                      Restoration to normal position.

                      Retract

                      To pull back; opposite of protract.

                      Retrieve

                      To remove an implant from a patient (retrieved, retrieval)

                      Retro

                      Prefix meaning behind.

                      Retroflexion

                      A backward bending of one part of an organ on another portion; Opposite of anteflexion.

                      Retroversion

                      A backward turning; the entire organ is turned backward; opposite of anteversion.

                      Revision

                      In orthopedic surgery, this term indicates a subsequent surgery to alter, replace or remove an implant

                      Roentgenogram

                      A photograph made by means of roentgen rays or x-rays. The rays are named in honor of their discoverer.

                      Roentgenoscopy

                      Examination by means of a fluoroscope

                      ROM

                      The area through which a joint may be moved in all planes, measured in degrees. The greater the ROM, the more flexible the joint. One of the goals of joint replacement is to improve a patient’s ROM in the joint that may have been lost to arthritis, trauma or deformity. (range of motion)

                      Rotation

                      The act of turning about a centrally located length axis

                      S

                      Sac

                      Any bag-like organ

                      Sacrum

                      Five fused vertebrae below the last lumbar vertebra

                      Sagittal

                      Pertaining to the median vertical plane of the body

                      Scapula

                      The shoulder blade.

                      Scoliosis

                      Lateral abnormal curvature of the spine

                      Semilunar

                      Shaped like a half moon

                      Septic

                      Infection due to presence of pathogenlc organisms

                      Serrated

                      Having a saw-tooth edge

                      Serum

                      Clear portion of any animal fluid

                      Shear

                      A biomechanical term meaning a load applied parallel to the surface of a structure; shear strength is the amount of resistance in a material to angular deformation (bending) resulting from shear forces

                      Shell

                      The acetabular component, the part of a hip replacement system that serves for the hip socket

                      Sinus

                      A cavity

                      Skeleton

                      The hard framework of the body. The bones of the body collectively

                      Spinous

                      A spine-like process; Latin adjective, spinatus

                      SS

                      Stainless Steel

                      Stem

                      A device (or tissue or substance) that is transferred, grafted, or inserted into a living body (see also implant, prosthesis)

                      Sterile

                      Clean and free from all living micro-organisms

                      Sternum

                      The breast bone

                      Sub

                      Prefix meaning "below" or "beneath"

                      Subclavian

                      Beneath the clavicle

                      Subluxation

                      A partial or incomplete dislocation

                      Submaxillary

                      Beneath the maxilla

                      Subscapular

                      Beneath the scapula

                      Subsidence

                      The settling of a prosthesis after implantation; it is determined by comparing x-rays immediately after surgery to x-rays taken at a later date. Subsidence is a sure sign of loosening of an implant

                      Superior

                      Higher; opposite of inferior; superioris, a Latin form of the adjective

                      Supinate

                      To turn the palm of the hand upward (opposite: pronate)

                      Supine

                      Lying flat on the back (opposite: prone)

                      Supra

                      Prefix meaning "above;" super has same meaning; opposite of sub

                      Surgical pearls

                      Expert surgical techniques or tips developed by senior surgeons, often for particular implants or procedures

                      Surgical technique

                      A series of steps required to complete a surgical procedure (or operation)

                      Symphysis

                      A growing together

                      Synovectomy

                      An immovable joint

                      Synovia

                      A union of bones by means of cartilage

                      Synovial Membrane

                      A thin tissue that lines the capsule surrounding the joint

                      T

                      Talus

                      The ankle; a bone of the ankle. The tarsal bone articulating with the distal tibia and fibula.

                      Tarsus

                      (1) The instep; the seven bones forming the back portion of the foot (2) Connective tissue framework of the eyelids.

                      Telesession

                      An instructional course or lecture provided by one-way video, often a telesession consists of an expert surgeon discussing and/or demonstrating specific techniques or characteristics of an implant system.

                      Template

                      An outline used to trace bones in order to standardize its form; surgeons use templates of implants to measure against a patient’s x-rays to select the best size and best design for the patient’s anatomy and surgical needs.

                      Tendon

                      Fibrous connective tissue serving for the attachment of muscles to bones and other parts. Syn. - sinew

                      Tensile strength

                      A biomechanical measurement of the amount of stress required to cause a given material to fail.

                      Thoracic

                      Pertaining to the chest; thoracico or thoraco, containing forms

                      Ti

                      The abbreviation for Titanium, a metal often used in implants

                      Tibia

                      Latin name of shin bone. Larger bone in the lower leg. Pertaining to the tibia; Latin adjective, tibialis

                      Tissue

                      A collection of similar cells specialized to perform a particular function

                      Titanium

                      A metal often used in the manufacture of orthopedic devices or implants. It has good fatigue, wear and strength characteristics and is often combined with other metals in alloys which enhance desirable characteristics.

                      Trabecular

                      A type of mature bone commonly found at the ends of bones, it is composed of a latticework of bony plates and columns. Its structure gives trabecular bone a great deal of strength despite having less bony material than cortical bone.

                      Trochanter

                      Either of two bony processes of the upper femoral shaft for muscle attachment

                      Trochlear groove

                      The articular portion of the anterior surface of the distal femur (the front-facing notch at the lowest part of the femur where the femur joins the knee joint, this groove provides a shallow depression where the patella slides as the knee articulates).

                      Tubercle

                      A small rounded elevation of eminence on a bone

                      Tuberosity

                      Broad eminence on a bone

                      U

                      UHMWPE

                      Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, a type of polyethylene with superior wear properties, very commonly used in orthopedic devices. (see also polyethylene, plastic)

                      Ulna

                      The inner and larger bone or the forearm; In the correct anatomic position, palms forward, the inner and larger bone of the forearm, between the wrist and the elbow, on the side opposite the thumb.

                      Ultra-congruent

                      Highly congruent, contains a high degree of constraint between two articular implants (see also congruent)

                      Uncemented

                      A prosthesis that is implanted without cement (see also press-fit)

                      UNI

                      Unicompartmental knee (also can be the abbreviation for unilateral)

                      Unilateral

                      One-sided, affecting only one-side (ex. a unilateral knee replacement would replace just one knee, not both) (see also uni)

                      V

                      Valgus

                      A term denoting position meaning bent outward (knock-knee) or twisted, applied especially to deformities in which a part is bent outward. Also increased femoral head-neck angle

                      Value-added services

                      This is a broad term that encompasses systems that help orthopedic customers (surgeons and hospitals) meet the demands of managed care, these systems are not directly related to orthopedic implants

                      Varus

                      (1) Turned inward; bowlegged. (2) A condition in which a clubfooted person walks on outer border of the foot. Also, decreased femoral head-neck angle

                      Vastus

                      Wide or great

                      Vertex

                      The summit or apex

                      Viscous

                      Sticky or gummy, thick fluid

                      Vitreous

                      Glassy

                      Voluntary

                      Performed in accordance with the will; opposite of involuntary

                      W

                      Wear

                      The loss of material from solid surfaces due to mechanical abrasion

                      All content herein is protected by copyright, trademarks and other intellectual property rights, as applicable, owned by or licensed to Zimmer Biomet or its affiliates unless otherwise indicated, and must not be redistributed, duplicated or disclosed, in whole or in part, without the express written consent of Zimmer Biomet. ?
                      To find a doctor near you, click the ‘find-a-doc’ link. For printed information on joint replacement, call 1-800-447-5633.
                      Talk to your surgeon about whether joint replacement or another treatment is right for you and the risks of the procedure, including the risk of implant wear, loosening or failure, and pain, swelling and infection. Zimmer Biomet does not practice medicine; only a surgeon can answer your questions regarding your individual symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.